Saturday, March 14, 2020

Will Colleges Accept the Old SAT for Class of 2017 or 2018 30+ Schools Interviewed

Will Colleges Accept the Old SAT for Class of 2017 or 2018 30+ Schools Interviewed SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Image via College Board. The SAT wasrevamped in March 2016 in an effort to make it more modern and accessible. If you’re a current high school student, you’ve probably heard about this change. If you’re a current senior(Class of 2017) or junior(Class of 2018) this raises some questions.What if you tookthe SAT before it changed last spring? Will colleges still accept scores from the "old" SAT? Or will they require you to take the new SAT?This has big implications for how you prep, when you take the tests, and possibly even whether you should switch to the ACT. In this exclusive, first of its kind breakdown, we personally spoke to admissions counselors from dozens of colleges to get some real answers on how they willhandle the transition. Overview: What's In This Guide To get accurate info that's most relevant to you as a student or parent, we posed as a parent and asked college admission officers directly how we should handle the SAT transition for two children: one a risingsenior(Class of 2017) and one a junior(Class of 2018). They did not know I was affiliated with PrepScholar. In most cases I talked to an admissions representative or someone higher up in the office. Also, since we couldn’t call every single school in the US, we will also include a guide to help you find out about the new SAT policy at any school you’re interested in. (Please share this info with us in the comments!) For the purposes of this article, "old SAT" refers to the 2400 version of the SAT that wasadministered up until January2016. The "new SAT" or "redesigned SAT" refers to the redesigned test thatwas first administered in March2016. We will cover some overall trends we noticed before diving into a school-by-school guide. Next, we will outline a guide to help you call admissions offices for schools you're interested in. Trends about Accepting the New SAT Every school we spoke to is accepting both the old and the new SAT for the Class of 2017 (current seniors). This is because the SAT is typically taken during junior year, and for the Class of 2017, the old SAT wasavailable for half of your junior year, and the new SAT for the second half. One caveat to this is that many colleges will not "superscore" between the new and old SAT, since they consider them to be different tests. This means that they won’t automatically look at your highest section scores like they normally do with two different SAT score reports. Keep this in mind if you think you will need to retake the SAT. As far as some colleges are concerned, comparing the old and new SAT is like comparing apples and oranges. In terms of the Class of 2018, colleges fall into two main camps. In the first camp, they will let the Class of 2018 submit scores from the current SAT. As of July 2016, this camp is about three-quarters of schools we interviewed. In the second camp, they haven’t made a decision yet for the Class of 2018 – though some are leaning one way or the other, based on our conversations. This camp has six schools. Finally, there are two schools who have decided not to accept the old SAT for the Class of 2018. Additionally, many colleges cautioned against taking the SAT too early, as they tend to see the highest scores from juniors and older. That means if you’re in the Class of 2018, it would likely make more sense to take the new SAT,unless you are confident your score from the old SAT is stellar. We will continue to monitor college admission websites as policies are updated. The New 2016 SAT: A School-by-School Guide We called the admissions offices at many popular schools to find out their policies – or what they know so far. We also checked to see if they have official policies up on their websites, and will include those where available. Since we couldn’t call every single school, we are also including a guide to getting this info on your own after our list. We contacted and are posting the policies (or what we know so far) from the schools below. We contacted all of the Ivy Leagues, top schools like Stanford and MIT, and other popular colleges and universities from around the country. Barnard College Brigham Young University Brown University Bryn Mawr College Cambridge University Columbia University Cornell University Dartmouth College Duke University Harvard University Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mount Holyoke College New York University Northwestern University Oxford University Pennylsvania State University Princeton University Stanford University University of California Berkeley University of California Los Angeles University of Chicago University of Michigan University of Pennsylvania University of Virginia Vanderbilt University Washington University in St Louis Wellesley College Yale University We organized our list based on the redesigned SAT policy schools are adopting. Again, since every school we spoke to will continue to accept the current SAT for the Class of 2017, we are organizing this list based on the policy for the Class of 2018. We will first look at the schools that are not accepting the old SAT for the Class of 2018. Next, we'll list the schools that will officially be accepting the current SAT for the Class of 2018. Finally, we will go through the schools that have not yet decided on a policy. Class of 2018 Cannot Submit the Current SAT Duke University Duke has decided that, although members of the Class of 2017 may submit either the old or new SAT, members of the Class of 2018 (and younger) must submit the new SAT. Furthermore, if a student in the Class of 2017 submits an old and new SAT score, they will use concordance tables to determine the higher score. Northwestern University Can a student in the Class of 2017 submit scores from the current SAT? â€Å"We’ll definitely still accept his scores.† But will you superscore between the old and new SAT? â€Å"As far as how we’re going to be using the new test, we don’t have a policy yet.† (Northwestern has since posted a policy that clarifies they will not superscore between the old and new SAT.) So what about a student from the Class of 2018 – could they submit scores from the current SAT? I was told last year the policy had not been decided yet. Since then, Northwestern has posted their official policy and it looks like they are not accepting the old SAT for the Class of 2018: "beginning with those seeking to enroll in fall 2018, we will only accept the new SAT." So if you're in the Class of 2018 or later, you have to take the new SAT for Northwestern. Class of 2018 Can Submit the Old SAT Barnard College When I asked about the Class of 2017 last year, the Barnard representative said, â€Å"We will be accepting both tests still.† When I asked about the Class of 2018, I was told they hadn't determined their policy yet. I reached out to the admissions office again via email and learned some good news: the Class of 2018 can also submit the old SAT! "Yes, you may submit results from the old and/or the redesigned SAT. When evaluating applicants, we will consider only the highest testing results reported from one version of the test, not across both versions. In the redesigned version of the SAT, Barnard will not require the writing test. Results from two SAT Subject Tests will no longer be required." Note that Barnard is not superscoring across the old and new SAT, and that they no longer require two SAT subject tests. Brigham Young University BYU has a relatively relaxed, straightforward policy regarding the new SAT. The admissions representative told me, â€Å"We’ll take whatever [SAT score] is highest [for a current senior]. If he gets a better score on the new SAT we’ll accept that.† So not only can you submit either the old or new SAT if you’re in the Class of 2017, BYU will superscore between the two tests. What about for the Class of 2018? â€Å"We’ll still accept the old one [for a current junior]. If he takes it again, it will be whichever one is highest.† So for BYU, you can submit scores from either the old or new SAT up through the Class of 2018. Brown University Image via Wikipedia. When I asked about the SAT transition last year, I was told by an admissions representative, â€Å"We haven’t made a decision yet†¦We’ll be posting it on our website as soon as we’ve decided.† Luckily, Brown has now decided on a policy for the new SAT, and it's very flexible.According to their FAQ page, they "do not have a preference for either the current SAT or the redesigned SAT." So if you're in the Class of 2018, you can definitely submit the old SAT. Bryn Mawr and Mount Holyoke While looking at some of the Seven Sisters schools (some of the top women-only colleges in the US) we noticed that some of them don’t require standardized testing at all. This is still a fairly rare practice among schools in the US, but it’s interesting to note that for some schools, including Bryn Mawrand Mount Holyoke, sending standardized test scores is optional (exceptions include international and home-schooled students). Since scores are not required, you can send in any standardized scores you do have, including ones from the current SAT. Carnegie Mellon Image via Wikipedia. Carnegie Mellon also falls in the camp that is accepting either the old or the new SAT as long as they were available while the student was in high school. â€Å"If they’re offering both SATs it’s up to them which one to take,† an admissions representative told me. Even for a current junior? â€Å"Yes, as long as they have the choice we will accept either one.† As of October 2015, Carnegie Mellon's standardized testing requirements page doesn't list any information about the new SAT. However, they do note that "Carnegie Mellon would prefer that applicants take these required tests in their junior or senior year." This means that if you're in the Class of 2018 and tookthe oldSAT as a sophomore, Carnegie Mellon prefers (but doesn't require) that you re-take the SAT or ACT as a junior or senior. Columbia University Columbia has a posted policy about the new SAT: "Columbia will continue to accept scores for both versions of the SAT for applicants applying for admission for fall 2017 and fall 2018." That means if you're in the Class of 2018, you're free to take the current SAT. They will continue to accept either version of the SAT through Fall 2018 (which would include current freshmen). That said, they will not superscore between two versions of the test. So if you take both the old and new SAT, they won't automatically look at your highest section scores. Cornell University When I asked about the Class of 2017 and 2018 submitting the current SAT, I was told, â€Å"We would accept whatever test they take during the transition period. Whatever they end up taking we’ll use.† Translation: the Class of 2017 or 2018 can take either version of the SAT. However, the Cornell officer cautioned pretty strongly about taking the SAT too early, in reference to someone in the Class of 2018 fitting in the old SAT: â€Å"I would wait a little while before taking that standardized test because even though we’ll see the highest scores, we’ll have access to all those scores.† So even though Cornell would accept the current version of the SAT through the Class of 2018, make sure you don't take the SAT before you're ready. If you want to read more about how Cornell will compare scores between the old and new SAT, you can check out their new SAT FAQ. Dartmouth College Dartmouth has updated their FAQ page with info about the new SAT. They confirm that they will take the new or old SAT for the Class of 2017 and beyond: "If you are applying for admission to enroll at Dartmouth in the fall of 2017 or later, your results from either the current or the redesigned version of the SAT will be accepted, we do not have a preference." However, Dartmouth is not superscoring between the old and new SAT: "we will consider your highest â€Å"superscored† results from either the current or the redesigned SAT; we will not combine scores from both versions." Howard University If you want to go to Howard, you’re in luck, because they have a very straightforward policy about the new SAT. â€Å"We only consider the math and critical reading scores, so we will superscore between new and old [SAT scores], and consider any tests taken while in high school,† the admissions representative told me when I asked about students in the Class of 2017 and 2018 taking the oldSAT. The bottom line? Both the Class of 2017 and the Class of 2018 can take the old or new SAT and submit it to Howard. Johns Hopkins When asked if Johns Hopkins would accept an old SAT score from a student in the Class of 2017, the admissions representative replied, â€Å"Absolutely.† And when asked about if a student in the Class of 2018 could also submit the old SAT, the representative said, â€Å"He can take it.† So both the Class of 2017 and Class of 2018 can take either version of the SAT and submit it to Johns Hopkins. Their website now says that "For 2017 applicants, Johns Hopkins will accept both the new SAT and old SAT." We emailed the admissions office to clarify the Class of 2018 can still submit the old SAT as well and they replied, "if you take one old test and one new test, we will convert the old math and reading scores into a comparable new score." This presumably means the Class of 2018 is good to go, and furthermore, explains their policy if they get an old and new SAT score: to compare them using concordance tables. New York University Image via Wikipedia. NYU has a policy about the new SAT posted on their admissions website. As stated on their standardized testing page, â€Å"Either [the old SAT or the new SAT] are fine.† Furthermore, I spoke with an admissions representative who clarified this is true for students in both the Class of 2017 and Class of 2018. So feel free to submit either version of the SAT to NYU. Oxford University I was able to send the Oxford Admissions office an email about the redesigned SAT, and asked whether students graduating in 2017 and 2018 would be able to submit scores from the current SAT. â€Å"Yes, we will continue to accept any test taken before the changes are implemented," said the email. "In general we expect a candidate to have achieved their entry qualifications within three years of applying.† So Oxford will continue to accept scores from the current SAT, as long as a student applying took it within the last three years. Princeton University When I asked the Princeton officer about students in the Class of 2017 and the Class of 2018, they said, â€Å"We are accepting either of the two †¦ Your son who’s a sophomorecould still submit his old one though he would probably end up taking the new one due to timing†¦ We’ll accept the old one for as long as it’s valid, which I believe is for five years after the test date.† So Princeton will accept either the Old or New SAT for the Classes of 2017 and 2018 – maybe up to the class of 2020 if they follow the SAT’s five-year score expiration policy. Additionally, Princeton has posted a short answer about the new SAT on their FAQ page: "We will accept either version of the SAT, or the ACT with Writing. We do not have a preference for the â€Å"old† or â€Å"redesigned† SAT. The â€Å"old† SAT, or redesigned SAT with Essay and ACT with Writing are treated equally." So again, Princeton seems ready to accept the old SAT for as long as it's available. Stanford University Will Stanford continue to accept the current SAT for students in the Class of 2017 and Class of 2018? â€Å"We will be taking both tests,† the admissions representative told me. â€Å"We do have a preference for having them take it when they’re a little older, but we will be accepting both tests.† Stanford has now also confirmed on its Testing page that they will accept both the old and new SAT. They require applicants to take all three components of the test (Reading and Writing, Math, and Essay) and caution they will not superscore between the old and new SAT. So even if you’re in the Class of 2018 and take the old SAT, Stanford will accept it. However, heed their advice about taking the test only when you’re ready! University of California Berkeley â€Å"Yeah, we will be accepting both [the old and new SAT],† an admissions representative at Berkeley told me when I asked about students in the Class of 2017 and 2018. â€Å"At this point †¦ as long as you take it before they make that change, we will accept it.† The University of California website now also has a section clarifying that the old SAT is okay for the Class of 2018, but the Class of 2019 and younger must take the new SAT. University of California Los Angeles Image via Wikipedia. UCLA, as a fellow member of the UC system, has the same policy as UC Berkeley, but we did call just to make sure.Whenwe asked if UCLA willswitch over to redesigned SAT only by the time the Class of 2018 is applying, the admissions officer said,â€Å"Nope, we’ll still be accepting [the old SAT].† So, just like Berkeley, you can submit either version of the SAT to UCLA, even if you're in the Class of 2018. Also, UCLA is reminding applicants on their website that if they take the new SAT, to sign up for the essay, which will be optional on the new SAT. University of Chicago Will the University of Chicago accept scores from the current SAT for students in the Class of 2017 or 2018? The admissions representative said, â€Å"We will still accept either test.† The University of Chicago has now clarified on their website that they will accept either the old or new SAT as long as scores are valid. If you are in the Class of 2018 and took the old SAT, your score will still be valid by your senior year and you can use it to apply. However, Chicago will not superscore between the old and new SAT. University of Pennylvania Penn has now posted an official policy about the new SAT which is quite flexible: they will allow the Class of 2018 to submit the old or new SAT. "For students with the option to take either exam, Penn will accept scores from both the current SAT and the redesigned SAT." Additionally, they won't require the essay portion of the new SAT and they will not superscore between the old and new SAT. Vanderbilt University Will Vanderbilt be accepting old SAT scores from students in the Class of 2017 and the Class of 2018? â€Å"Yes, as long as the old SAT was available while the student was in high school, we will accept those scores†¦We will absolutely accept it, if he takes it now.† However, Vanderbilt did caution that they will not be superscoring. â€Å"If you take both the old and the new one, we won’t cross super-score those tests. If you take two old SATs, we will superscore those two, but if you take an old and a new SAT, we won’t superscore between those.† Vanderbilt has now posted this policy on their website. If you scroll down to "A Note Regarding the New SAT," you can see Vanderbilt will continue to accept the old SAT as long as it's available to students, but will not superscore between the old and new tests. Washington University in Saint Louis So how is Washington University in Saint Louis handling the SAT transition? â€Å"We are going to work with the old SAT as it phases out. [We will take it] until it is no longer possible to take the old SAT,† an admissions representative told me. So is this true for a student in the Class of 2018? â€Å"If that’s the score he wants to send and he likes it, then that’s fine.† So for Washington University, you can send either the old or new SAT even if you are in the Class of 2018. But will they superscore between the old and new SAT scores? â€Å"We actually don’t know how we’re going to handle [superscoring] yet because we haven’t seen the new test yet. We would hope to superscore but we have to wait until we know more.† So be aware that if you end up taking the old SAT and the new SAT, Washington University might not automatically look at the highest score from both sittings. As of July 2016, there isn't a policy posted regarding this on their application website, so we'll keep you posted. Wellesley College I had a long conversation with an admissions officer at Wellesley back in June. I was told then, â€Å"We clearly will be taking the old SAT [for the Class of 2017]. I don’t know about [the Class of 2018], as we have no official policy yet.† But now, Wellesley has posted an expanded section about the redesigned SAT on their FAQ page, which affirms that the Class of 2017 can submit either the current or redesigned SAT.The FAQdoessuggest that they are pushing for a transition to the new SAT, "Applicants to Wellesley for 2017 and beyond should take the new test, but can submit scores from the pre-2016 version." We emailed the admissions office at Wellesley and confirmed that someone in the Class of 2018 can still submit the oldSAT, even though the new SAT is preferred: "We would still consider those scores, however, since we often see scores improve dramatically between a student's sophomore year and her senior year, she may want to consider taking them again in the future." So while the Class of 2018 could submit the current SAT to Wellesley, remember you may get a better score on the new SAT (or the ACT!) if you take the test your junior year. Yale Yale has posted a policy for the SAT redesign. They will be accepting the current SAT for the Class of 2018 as well as the Class of 2017. This is in contrast to the original policy they had posted last year, which stated that the Class of 2018 could not submit the current SAT: Yale's first policy for the redesigned SAT. Yale's current policy for the redesigned SAT. So if you're in the Class of 2018, and you've taken or will take the current SAT, you will be able to submit it to Yale. No Clear Policy Yet for the Class of 2018 Cambridge University Cambridge's different colleges have various admissions policies and standards. We got in touch with a few to get a sense of how Cambridge as a whole will handle the transition. This is what we found out. "We accept the qualifications which the applicants have taken and assess them carefully and on an individual basis on academic merit alongside all others applying for the same subject," said an admissions coordinator at Christ's College. Translation? Any standardized test will be looked at, including the current SAT. "I have contacted our Admissions Tutors and the feedback is as follows: ‘Yes: old one is fine,'" said an admissions officer at Churchill College. "The University of Cambridge will probably consider both versions of SAT (a decision will be made later this summer). Please note that we do not accept SATs on their own and they need to be accompanied by Advanced Placement Test or the International Baccalaureate," said an Admissions Officer at Pembroke College. So while some of the colleges seem prepared to accept the current SAT, others are waiting for an official policy to be set. If you're curious about any of the other individual colleges at Cambridge, see a full list here with contact info. Harvard University When I talked to a Harvard representative about how they will handle the SAT transition, I was told, â€Å"For a year or so we will accept both [the old SAT and new SAT].† This means for students in the Class of 2017, who will be juniors when the SAT changes, they could submit either test. When I asked about the Class of 2018, I was told, â€Å"I can’t tell you at this point†¦Probably for up to two years we will accept the old SAT.† Basically, this is a maybe. Indeed, if you look on Harvard’s admission website, you can see the following policy: â€Å"We will accept both the current and the redesigned SAT scores for the foreseeable future. You should submit scores from tests taken in the past three years." Unfortunately the â€Å"foreseeable future† is not terribly specific. If you follow the three year rule, someone in the Class of 2018 could take the old SAT as a sophomore and still have a usable score by their senior year. So it appears that Harvard will accept the old SAT for the Class of 2018, which would put them in line with other Ivy League schools like Brown and Dartmouth. You may want to double check with the admissions office before you assume you can use an old SAT score. MIT So could a current sophomore submit a score form the old SAT? â€Å"We will still be accepting [the old SAT] for the Class of 2017.† What about the Class of 2018? â€Å"That is likely we will as well†¦.We’re still reaching a decision on everything at this point. But we will always accept previously-taken tests.† Translation? If you’re in the Class of 2017, you can submit either version of the SAT. If you’re in the Class of 2018, you can certainly submit a score from the current SAT, but MIT hasn’t decided yet if by that point they will require the redesigned SAT as well from applicants submitting the SAT. As of July 2016, MIT hasn't decided on an official policy. They say on their FAQ page that: "We have not announced our policy and/or requirements for the 2017 admission cycle...For students interested in applying to MIT in 2017, and registering for the new SAT - we will accept all test results regardless of format or our final requirements. We will also accept all test results from exams taken before the new SAT." Penn State Can the Class of 2017 and the Class of 2018 submit scores from the current SAT if they have them? â€Å"As long as we have at least one score†¦We haven’t set a policy but as long as there’s at least one test score that’s all we need,† the Penn State representative told me. What about superscoring between the old and new SAT? â€Å"If [they take] the old and new one, whatever one is better we will accept.† So, tentatively, Penn State not only appears to accept both the old and new SAT up through the Class of 2018, they will also superscore between the old and new. Again, keep an eye out for official policy to go up in the Penn State admissions website, but for now, you can plan to take either version of the SAT. As of July 2016, no additional information has been posted on their website regarding the new SAT. University of Michigan Will the University of Michigan be accepting the current SAT for a student in the Class of 2017? â€Å"We will still accept the old SAT if they take it.† So what about for a student in the class of 2018? â€Å"They haven’t made a final determination on that †¦ we’re probably going to decide this next year, which is when the new SAT will roll out.† The admissions representative did say, â€Å"We will still accept previous scores and take them into consideration.† So while Michigan will certainly look at scores from the old SAT from a student in the Class of 2018, the jury’s still out on whether they will accept that as the official standardized test score, or if they will require the new SAT by then. As of July 2016 their website has not been updated. University of Virginia UVA has decided on a new SATpolicy, for the Class of 2017 at least: they can choose between the old SAT, new SAT, or the ACT when submitting their standardized test scores. However, there is nothing listed about the Class of 2018, so you'll have to wait to find out whether they will accept the current SAT for your class. How to Call Admissions Offices You’re probably wondering about other colleges we didn’t reach out to for this guide. From local state schools to small liberal arts colleges, every school is going to have a policy for the redesigned SAT. So how do you find out for yourself? The first step is to check their website to see if they have posted a policy. Check first their standardized testing page for freshman applicants. If the policy isn't there, take a look at the FAQ section. If they’ve posted a policy for the redesigned SAT, it will likely appear on one of those two pages. Unfortunately, many schools haven’t posted their policies online yet. Many are waiting to learn more about the redesigned SAT before they do so. If that’s the case, you can use our guide here to help you call college admission departments and ask. Even if they don’t have an official policy yet, an admissions officer can give you their best guess, which can help clear things up for you. In many cases, a policy has been decided but just not posted yet, and this is the best way to find out. If you just read the words â€Å"call college admission departments† and started thinking about slinking away, sending an email, or waiting for the official policy – stop! I realize that a lot of high school students are nervous about talking on the phone, and especially nervous about talking to admissions officers. Keep in mind that answering questions is part of the job of an admissions officer. Furthermore, they are really nice and happy to talk to you! Also, in case you're wondering, they’re not secretly taking your name down and writing notes about you. First of all, you don’t have to give your name, but even if you did, they don’t care. Colleges don’t track phone calls (or visits, or emails) by name. Calling an office will not affect your future application one way or the other. Step-by-Step Calling Guide First of all, to get the phone number, search for "[Name of College/University] Admissions Contact Info." This will pull up the page with the contact information, including emails and phone numbers for the admissions office. Dial the number for the admissions office. Here’s what to say to get the info you need. In most cases you’ll get through to an admissions representative first, not a counselor. (The difference is that representatives handle communications and outreach while counselors or officers actually read applications.) Briefly introduce yourself. For example, say, â€Å"I’m a high school student graduating in 2017† or â€Å"I’m the parent of a high school student graduating in 2017." This will help the representative put you in context. Succinctly say why you’re calling, for examples say, â€Å"I have a question about the new 2016 SAT.† At that point the representative will talk to you if they believe they have the answer, or will transfer you to an admissions counselor. Questions to Ask Jury's still out on whether waiting for your crush to text back or gathering the courage to call a college admissions office is more excruciating. First ask, "Are you still accepting the oldSAT for my class, the Class of 2017?" (Or the Class of 2018, as the case may be.) If they say yes, you can reconfirm by asking, "If I tookthe oldSAT before spring 2016 and gota good score, can I apply to your school with this score?" Also, if they say yes, ask, "Will you superscore between the old and new SAT?" You'll want to find out if they will take your highest scores if they take both the old and new SAT. If they will not be superscoring, ask how they will compare your scores if you take both the old and new SAT. If they will not be accepting the oldSAT for your class, ask which standardized tests they will be accepting for your class. It might be they will only accept the redesigned SAT or the ACT. You could also consider asking about SAT versus ACT, and if they would suggest taking the ACT instead. (Most colleges will likely affirm they take both tests equally, and perhaps encourage you to take the ACT during the transition period since it may be simpler.) If you have any other questions about applying or that school's specific application process, be sure to ask. Remember to thank them for their time before signing off. Also, for any school that you call that's not on the current list, leave a comment below so other students will benefit! Closing Words It’s important to put your best foot forward with standardized tests, which is why we spent so much time doing this research. However, it’s also important to remember they’re not the only part of your college applications. Many admissions counselors were eager to remind me over the phone that they use holistic review processes, so your SAT score is not the be-all end-all of your application. While it’s tricky being in the Class of 2017 or 2018 and having to deal with the SAT transition, remember to keep your grades up, take challenging classes, and get involved in things you care about. Finally, keep in mind that you can always take the ACT instead! The vast majority of colleges accept it equally, and the ACT isn’t changing. If you’re stressed about dealing with the redesigned SAT, remember you don’t have to take it! You can take the ACT instead. What’s Next? Read in-depth about the new SAT to understand how it's changing. We have a summary of major changes, and detailed guides to changes on the Reading, Writing, and Math sections, as well as the Essay. So what should you do if you decide to take the new SAT? Check out our study guide for the new SAT. Thinking you should take the ACT instead? Get guides to ACT scoring and ACT timing, and also try a free ACT practice test. If the ACT seems manageable to you, consider taking it instead of the SAT to avoid the transition headache. Want advice for getting into top colleges? Read our exclusive guide about what college admissions officers are actually looking for. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

What are Effective Ways of Coping with Anxiety and Nervousness in Essay

What are Effective Ways of Coping with Anxiety and Nervousness in Teaching - Essay Example   Learners for the lessons were non-native English-speaking students. The English Language Institution was chosen for this teaching practice. This course is designed for someone who wishes to visit an English-speaking country soon, and it is also suitable for students who are studying English for educational reasons. At the moment, the learners level of English is approximately the lower intermediate level. The class size will be no more than 10 students, who will be at least 16 years old. The main purpose of this lesson is to introduce new vocabulary and simple grammar. Students will be able to improve their communication skills for leisurely and social purposes by engaging in authentic conversational activities; they also gain practice in using English language patterns through reading the customized text and completing predetermined gaps in the text meaningfully. By providing both controlled and freer practice, it is intended that students will become more confident in their use of English. Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is the methodological framework for a lesson where tasks are used as â€Å"the core unit of planning and instruction† (Richards and Rodegers, 2001: 223). By setting difficult but achievable tasks, the students are challenged, which then facilitates learning. This lesson emphasizes the process of learning, provides the students with a natural context for language use and focuses on tasks  that are meaningful, as, without meaning, there can be no learning (Larsen-Freeman, 2000; Littlewood, 2004). Based on the TBLT, some useful lesson procedures for teaching receptive skills are developed. However, since tasks are defined in terms of what people actually do in authentic situations, there is flexibility in the pedagogical approach, so long as the learners complete the tasks meaningfully and are not expected to regurgitate others' meaning. What it means to be a teacher covers a wide scope of responsibility. As teaching is a ‘people-orient ed’ field, many considerations must be taken into account when making decisions that would benefit the majority. This peer-teaching practice has pushed me to the deepest level of introspection regarding my own beliefs and principles on teaching and education.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Medical Marijuana Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Medical Marijuana - Essay Example No scientific study has been done to support this. Cigarette smokers are said to be heavier addicts than the marijuana users. Sufficient medical research has been carried out it has proven that marijuana can be used for various medical purposes. It is known to relieve nausea and several types of pain. On the hand, medics still believe that better alternatives still exist than using marijuana. Such medicines contain chemicals with the capability to relieve similar pains and symptoms. They therefore, know that such medicines are better compared to the â€Å"dangerous† marijuana (Haerens 2013). Marijuana under medical supervision has been proven to relieve pain and stress among the ill. Other officials still believe on the fact that smoked marijuana damages internal body organs and systems. It initiates cancer related illnesses. Little evidence supports that smoked marijuana poses risks to human health. Beliefs on the marijuana-cancer relationship are misplaced. Smoked marijuana however, damages and infects most of the respiratory organs (Gieringer& Cartel 2008). Different physicians have come up with different arguments concerning marijuana use. Although most of the civilian population believes in healing powers of marijuana, physicians partly agree on that. They support themselves on this by lack of positive consistent results on marijuana. They therefore, term it as dangerous. It is known to cause damage to the brain, hearts, immune system and the lungs. It is scientifically proven to contain cancer related causing compounds. Marijuana further compromises the ability to learn by interfering with the memory. Based on such grounds, some government officials have maintained their say that it is dangerous and illegal. Cigarettes of tobacco cause a lot of damage to the bronchial mucosa. Samples of such twenty tobacco cigarettes pose the same health threat as four cigarettes of marijuana. This appears to be quite dangerous than

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Working as a registered nurse Essay Example for Free

Working as a registered nurse Essay I have been working as a registered nurse in Tacoma, WA since 2011 and I have chosen to assess the community health of Pierce County. Tacoma is the county seat of Pierce County and the largest city in the county and third largest city in the state (US Census Bureau, 2014). Pierce County is located south of Seattle and is comprised of 1,679 sq. miles, many of which front the Puget Sound. Northern areas of the county are comprised of islands and peninsulas only accessible by bridges or boats. It also contains one of the nation’s national parks and the state’s tallest peak, Mount Rainier. The Park’s boundaries largely define the eastern border of the County and the White and Nisqually Rivers make up the North and South boundaries respectively. (Snob Hollow Designs, 2014) Population Economic Status Assessment Nearly 820,000 people call Pierce County home. It boasts a high population density with 481 people per sq. mile. Urban areas comprise 93 percent of the county. (City-Data, 2014) The median household income in 2013 was estimated to be close to $60,000 and 12 percent of residents are living below the poverty level. (US Census Bureau, 2014) Blacks and African Americans make up the majority of low-income people despite the fact that they comprise only 7 percent of the County population. The majority of residents (76.5 percent) are white, 10 percent are non-black Hispanics and 6 percent are Asians. The median resident age is 35 years and 12 percent of residents are 65 years or older. (University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, 2014). More than a third of Pierce County children are eligible for free lunch benefits and 8.9 percent of residents are unemployed. As many as 16 percent of residents are uninsured despite a per capita personal health expenditure of $8,160 annually. Ten percent of those uninsured are children. What’s more, close to 6 percent of residents make less that $10,000/year. It’s estimated that 15 percent of residents are not able to see a health care provider when they need to because they can’t afford it. When they can afford to, primary  care providers (PCP) are in short supply and overworked. There are an estimated 1500 patients for every PCP in Pierce County. (University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, 2014)Medicare is the primary payer of health care expenditures for 10 percent of County residents. (City-Data, 2014) Pierce County has some of the highest rates of obesity in the nation with a 31 percent obesity rate. This is despite the fact that nearly 80 percent of residents reported exercising in the previous month. (University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, 2014)The County has numerous parks, hiking trails, walking paths and enjoys a temperate climate with little snow accumulation and mild summer temperatures. Poor nutrition is likely a key contributor with 16 percent of residents classified as food insecure. The County has the lowest access to healthy foods with 8 percent of people living in urban areas where the nearest grocery store is more than a mile from their home. Access to convenience stores is slightly better. (University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, 2014). Neighborhood and Community Safety Any Pierce County resident can testify to smelling the â€Å"Aroma of Tacoma† on a regular basis. At various parts of the day, a pungent smell not unlike that of rotten eggs fills the air. The source of the stench is attributed to industries located at the Port of Tacoma, the forest industry, car exhaust, or the tidal changes on the Puget Sound. The extent of air pollution in the area is large. More than three quarters of county residents drive alone to work every day. Just 3 percent take public transportation. The County ranks 16th in counties reporting high carbon monoxide one hour concentration. It is among the dirtiest 10 percent of US counties for its release of water and carcinogens. Chief among these deadly chemicals is methanol and hydrochloric acid. (City-Data, 2014) (Good Guide, 2011) There are four Superfund Sites in the County that continue to cause contamination of drinking water. One of these sites is Commencement Bay, the hub of the Port of Tacoma, one of the world’s busiest ports. The biggest polluter in the area is the Simpson Tacoma Kraft Company, a forest product  company that prides itself on using â€Å"every part of the tree except its shadow.† (Simpson, 2014) Another well-known polluter and also a major area employer is the US Military. Superfund Sites exist at both McChord AFB and the US Army Fort Lewis Range. (Good Guide, 2011) Cultural Assessment For a personal perspective of life inside Pierce County I consulted with a colleague who works as a lactation consultant. She is a 50-year-old college-educated white female who also works as an instructor in a local vocational college. She reports that her cohort’s attitude toward aging is not altogether positive. She is beginning to feel the gradual decline in her body functions and says that she and others like her find it frustrating that their bodies don’t work as well as they did in their youth. That attitude of reluctance tends to affect how readily her peers seek assistance, especially if it means accepting the realities of aging. Some of the physical health problems common in her cohort involve vision, sleep apnea, joint pain, and decreased stamina. She states that individuals in her cohort tend to be individualistic and prefer their yards, both physically and metaphorically, to be fenced. This perspective crosses over to how children are parented with a high value placed on raising adults that are independent and self-sufficient. Her children have either graduated from college or are currently attending university. She considers financial independence a mark of adulthood. A ritual associated with adulthood is moving out of the family home and their own. One of the challenges she sees in her cohort is that of obtaining access to mental health care. A colleague recently lost her son to suicide after numerous attempts to help him gain access to care failed and he committed suicide. She feels that only those who are going to hurt others or hurt themselves are recipients of care in a broken system. Because so many are aching for help in the community and a greater awareness of the need, the result has been a reduced stigma associated with mental illness. Acknowledging that mental illness is far from being treated on plane with biological illness, she reports that the awareness of an individual’s lack  of control over what is a real disease is growing. Disaster Assessment and Planning The incredible amount of physical beauty present in Pierce County is also a source of danger to its residents. The area has been declared as a disaster area 19 times in recorded history. Most of these events were the result of severe storms that caused flooding, landslides, and mudslides. The area is situated on or near several tectonic plates giving it an earthquake risk that is 355 percent greater than the national average. In 2001, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake was centered just 10.8 miles from the city center and caused tens of thousands in damage. An earthquake centered even farther away could affect the county via a subsequent Tsunami. Coastline areas comprise many of the County’s industries, parks, and homes and could be destroyed by a tsunami’s tidal surge. Mt. Rainier frames many of Tacoma’s picturesque views but it is a volcano that could come back to life at any moment. Its last eruption is estimated to have occurred more than 150 years ago but a recent e ruption could cause massive downstream flooding in nearly the entire County. (City-Data, 2014) Disasters caused by flooding precipitated by a tsunami, volcanic eruption, or one of the areas many rainstorms could displace many residents from their homes and block access to urgent and chronic healthcare services. Sewage systems could be affected by the flooding as well as decrease access to clean water. A massive earthquake could destroy many of Tacoma’s older buildings, many of which were built in the early 1900s and well before any seismic construction rules went into effect. Falling objects from an earthquake and resulting fires could result in massive injuries in the short-term and damage to public infrastructure in the long-term. (Pierce County Department of Emergency Management, 2010) Many of the possible disasters that could strike the area do not have the luxury of advance warning. Severe storms may give as little as a day or two notice, tsunamis and flooding just a few hours. Many residents are unlikely to understand the severity of a disaster until they are in i ts midst. Because the residents lack the ability to prepare, The Pierce County Department of Emergency Management has five departments to deal with every day emergencies and  large-scale disasters. The services include emergency management, enhanced 9-1-1 services, fire prevention, radio communications and an urban search and rescue task force. The Department is working to enroll all residents in an emergency alert system via text. Area hospital employees also have an alert system that sends a text message to employees to report to duty in the event of an emergency. The enhanced 9-1-1 system automatically finds the street address for landline calls. The radio communications team works to ensure that radio remains active in the event cell towers fall during an earthquake or are damaged during severe flooding. Urban Search and Rescue can provide vital services in the event of an earthquake, mudslide, avalanche or abandoned mine collapse. (Pierce County Department of Emergency Management, 2010) Windshield Survey Housing The majority of housing options available in Tacoma are single-family detached homes. A housing boom in the 1990s resulted in many newer homes and apartment buildings in both high and poor-income areas. Housing density appears to be highest in high-income neighborhoods. Many homes in both areas have grassed front and back yards. Although the area was heavily wooded when settled in the 1890s, much of the native evergreen trees are gone. Tree replacement appears limited to higher-income areas and is limited to non-native deciduous trees. Housing in lower-income neighborhoods appears to be in fair to moderate repair. Very few homes in these areas have bars over windows or doors. (Patamia, 2015) Open Space In Tacoma, there appears to be a moderate amount of open space, especially considering it is an urban area. I saw a large strip of valuable waterfront in the Ruston area dedicated to a walking path and docks used for office space and dining. The jewel in the crown of the Tacoma Metropolitan Park System is Wright Park, a 27-acre parcel spanning more than 10 city blocks in the heart of the city that features an arboretum, lawn bowling, playgrounds, and a pond. In addition, Mt Rainier National Park has more than 235,000 acres of protected forestland and numerous State parks dot the County. All of these spaces are open for public use and park passes are enveloped as part of the residents’ vehicle tax. Boundaries The boundaries of the area are largely natural features like rivers and mountains. Neighborhoods begin and end without notification but poorer areas tend to have more chain link fences, fewer shopping areas, and homes that lack fresh paint and ornamental landscaping. Ironically, the most expensive homes in the county have roads that are either gravel or so unkempt that potholes dominate. Commons People in the county tended to congregate around grocery stores and the strip malls that surround them. I visited an upscale grocery store in the middle of the day and found parking difficult despite an ample lot. Areas surrounding the Port of Tacoma business district tend to always have a large amount of traffic, especially large trucks carrying containers to and from the ships docked in Commencement Bay. Transportation Pierce County, despite the low numbers of residents who use public transportation has numerous options for getting out of your car. Buses travel to every part of the county, even across the Tacoma Narrows Bridge to the Olympic Peninsula town of Gig Harbor. Residents can travel to Seattle using rail or bus. Residents enjoy the capability of attaching their bikes to city buses but since the area is very hilly and frequently rainy, few take advantage of the service. For all of its access capabilities in Tacoma, getting around in surrounding communities is difficult. Interstate 5 intersects the county, enabling easy access for Port of Tacoma traffic to Canada and the western states. Several state highways run through the community and many are currently undergoing expansive improvement projects. Long-term plans include expanding Seattle’s light rail into Tacoma but recent initiatives to expand inter-county bus services was voted down by residents. Service Centers One of the most impressive things about Pierce County is how new and beautiful its schools are. Around these areas, it’s easy to spot social service centers such as YMCAs or Community Healthcare Clinics. Even in the poorest areas of the County, I saw many dentist offices, parks with  playground facilities, and sidewalks. I drove by a newer looking middle school several times during my survey and always saw it occupied by students despite heavy rain. Stores Commercial areas in the county appear to be centered on large chain grocery stores. There are few non-chain, independent dining options and those that are tend to offer high-calorie, high-fat options like hamburgers and milkshakes. I did not see any signs advertising farmers markets but there were more than a few community gardens where residents could grow their own fruits and vegetables. I was also impressed by how few grocery stores there were outside of major shopping areas and how far even the wealthiest had to travel to buy food. In more than one area, there were several grocery stores in close proximity to each other. People Out and About I saw several people walking around the County during my survey but all of them appeared to be walking for exercise and leisure, not for transportation. Almost all of these walkers were white and non-obese. A majority of those I saw were wearing Seahawk jerseys and/or colors. It was so persuasive that I felt out of place with an orange sweatshirt. Dogs accompanied many of the walkers and every dog was leashed. Signs of Community Vibrancy The Pierce County Community is very diverse but in nearly every area I traveled, I saw signs of vibrancy evidenced by hanging flower baskets, children playing outside, areas of preserved natural beauty, easy access to healthcare, and a lack of abandoned homes, stray animals, or countless homeless people. Race/Ethnicity Given that nearly three-quarters of Pierce County residents are white, its not surprising to see mostly white people in the County. Surprisingly, there are two major Indian Reservations, the Nisqually and Puyallup, inside Pierce County yet less than 2 percent of residents are Native American. Most of the County looks and feels American with few ethnic grocery stores or signs in a language other than English. Areas where whites live tend to be predominantly white but areas with larger populations of Blacks, Asians, and  Hispanics are well integrated. In one strip mall, there was a Mexican taqueria next door to an Asian grocery store. Religion While only 30 percent of Pierce County residents report being affiliated with a religious congregation, nearly half of them are non-denominational Christian churches. A third of residents report an affiliation with a Roman Catholic Church. I saw many more churches in the less affluent areas of the County than I did in wealthy ones. I also saw one Buddhist temple and Muslim Mosque. Health There are 10 hospitals serving Pierce County the largest of which is Tacoma General Hospital that has more than 400 beds and a level II trauma center. A few blocks away with the area’s second level II trauma center and a level III NICU is St Joseph Medical Center with 367 beds. Signs of homelessness are slightly invisible in Pierce County and tend to be clustered around area shelters or service providers such as the Union Gospel Mission and the YWCA. It’s estimated that 2,000 people including children are homeless on any given night in Tacoma. One of the area hospitals, Western State Hospital, provides services exclusively to the mentally ill but the lack of services to the homeless and mentally ill is striking. There are an estimated 368 mentally ill people for every mental health provider in Pierce County. Top performing counties have 521 providers per patient. The State ranks 49th in number of available psychiatric beds and several agencies have recently closed their doors or decreased services due to the economic turn down. (League of Women Voters Pierce County, 2013) (Good Guide, 2011) Forty percent of female tenth-grade children are classified as depressed. The Tacoma Pierce County Health Department lists mental health as its #1 priority in the coming years. Politics I toured the area in January when the nearest election was months or years away. Cars I viewed had a mix of bumper stickers that indicated the metropolitan area voted for Obama in the previous presidential election, supports the legalization of marijuana, and is a fan of the Seattle Seahawks. Media No matter the area, evidence of satellite dishes was seen on nearly every home. I did not see any newspaper boxes around area stores. It seems that the primary form of communication medium is through television and the Internet. Television stations accessed by residents are primarily in English but there are two stations that are exclusively in Spanish. Physical Environment As mentioned previously, Pierce County is a very beautiful place with views of mountains, water, dense forest, and even a volcano visible from nearly every corner of the County. During my survey, I even viewed a pair of bald eagles playing over the Puget Sound. The areas around the Port of Tacoma and the two Indian reservations tend to be the least attractive areas of the city where billboards for nearby tribal-run casinos predominate the landscape. Scavenger Hunt Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) WIC is a nutrition program that helps ensure that pregnant women, nursing moms and children under five have access to healthy foods. They also provide health education and breastfeeding support including peer counselors. Women who use WIC get money to purchase fresh fruit and vegetables, milk, cheese, whole grain breads and tortillas. They also ensure that children are vaccinated and stay on recommended growth curves. A family of four is eligible for WIC benefits if they have an annual income equal or less than $43,000. Accessing the services requires visiting a WIC location, which are located on major bus routes near hospitals, health clinics, or in tribal offices. There are more than 15 WIC locations in the county and offer services in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean, Russian, Tagalog, and Cambodian. (Tacoma Pierce County Health Department, 2015) YMCA The YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties offer a variety of services including seven healthy living centers, a summer camp and more than 70 child care sites. Their mission is to offer programs that â€Å"build a healthy spirit, mind and body for all.† (YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties, 2014) Monthly fees that are based on household income support membership and financial aid is  available. There are steep discounts for members of the military and their families. The variety of services available at the healthy living center is broad. Members of the Tacoma facility take piano lessons, learn how to box, and enjoy an indoor pool. Family Renewal Shelter There are 16 different resources for those dealing with domestic violence in Pierce County. Among them is the Family Renewal Shelter. They provide emergency services by way of confidential shelters, self-defense classes, spiritual support, and pet therapy. They also offer help with access to vehicles, educational scholarships, and relocation. Support for the organization comes from private donations from individuals, foundations, businesses, and churches. Access to services is via the organization’s 24-hour crisis line. Information about domestic violence is available on the organization’s website including a button that allows a user to leave the site quickly and eliminate a computer trail. (Family Renewal Shelter, 2014) National Alliance on Mental Illness – Pierce County The purpose of NAMI is to support people and those who love them with the challenges of mental illness. Members are people whose lives have been touched by mental illness and can share resources, lessons learned, and empathy with one another. They also advocate for change on local and legislative issues. Support group meeting occur three times a week and are located in a local Episcopal Church. They are free to attend. NAMI Walks occur several times a year and help to reduce the stigma of mental health and expand services, especially in education of mental health issues with police, fire and other first responders. (NAMI Pierce County, 2015) Planned Parenthood A group of community volunteers opened the first Planned Parenthood clinic in Tacoma in 1972 to address concerns about high rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The organization believes that everyone has the right to choose whether and when to get pregnant and works to prevent unwanted pregnancies. They rely heavily of individual donor support to provide basic low-cost health care, adoption planning, vasectomy services, and fitting for menstrual cups. They also provide abortion services and are  frequented by protestors. (PPGNW, 2015) Tacoma Rescue Mission There are more than 36 homeless shelters in Tacoma offering everything from emergency shelter, transitional housing, and assisted housing for people dealing with domestic violence, drug addiction, and sexual trafficking. They are a Christian organization funded by the United Way of Pierce County and the cities of Lakewood and Tacoma in addition to funding from Pierce County itself. They report that they provide shelter to more than 400 people nightly and provide food for 26,000 people who have no other access to food. They work to help people overcome drug and alcohol addiction with rehabilitation serves, educational assistance and case management. (Tacoma Rescue Mission, 2015) Interpretation of Collected Data Epidemiology examines how health status or health events are distributed across a community and what determines it. The preceding examples give a broad stroke painting of health in Pierce County. Overall, the birth rate (15 per 1000) exceeds the death rate (7.3 per 1000) in Pierce County and the infant mortality rate (6.5 per 100,000) is in line with the national average (6.15 per 1000). (City-Data, 2014) Pierce County offers many assets that empower the health of its residents. Among these are a large population of college-educated people with 90 percent of adults 25 years and older completing at least high school or obtaining a GED. Although 8 percent of residents are foreign born, more than 80 percent of these report speaking English fluently. The people of Pierce County have access to nature and local foods, including the nation’s largest crop of rhubarb. Strong faith communities with social outreach programs help neighbors in need. The community brims with people who are largely open-minded and access complementary care such as massage, acupuncture, and chiropractic adjustments is common. (Tacoma Pierce County Health Department, 2014) Community Diagnosis In my analysis of the data collected, it appears that Pierce County’s top three problems are access to mental health services, high rates of obesity, and access to quality health care. Access to mental health services A community that is mentally healthy is productive, enjoys fulfilling relationships with others in the community and is resilient through life’s challenges. Without it, even the healthiest body can fall into disrepair quickly. It’s no wonder then that mental illness is one of the most common causes of disability. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that as many as one in every 17 people has a seriously debilitating mental illness. The good news is that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented. We know more about how the brain functions than ever before and current research indicates that greatest opportunity to prevent illness is to get people into treatment early and often. (Healthy People 2020, 2015) With Washington State’s dismal rankings in the availability of psychiatric beds and the high patient load of mental health care providers in the County, there is much work to be done. Healthy People 2020 goals state that 87 percent of primary care facilities should provide mental health treatment onsite or by paid referral. This goal represents a 10 percent improvement over the baseline rate of 79 percent in 2006. (Healthy People 2020, 2015) High rates of obesity Pierce County’s high rate of obesity is well above the national average and may be attributed to large number of food deserts, especially in urban areas. People who have healthy weights and access to fresh foods have lower rates of chronic disease and a higher quality of life. Addressing obesity is complex, however, and requires a multi-faceted approach. As with mental health, the most powerful interventions are aimed at prevention. According to Healthy People 2020, more than 10.4 percent of children ages two to five were considered obese in 2008. The 2020 goal is to reduce that number to 9.4 percent. (Healthy People 2020, 2015)One of the most cost effective ways to achieve that goal is to increase the number of children who are breastfed. A history of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breast milk feeding for the first six months, is associated with an estimated 40 percent reduction in childhood obesity. (AHRQ, 2009) Unfortunately, just  14.1 percent of infants born in 2006 achieved this. Healthy People 2020’s target is 25.5 percent. (Healthy People 2020, 2015) Access to quality healthcare Optimal health is not a state achieved without support, education and intervention. Ensuring that Pierce County residents get the help they need when they need it is a big part of preventing chronic disease, improving quality of life, and preventing unnecessary death. Some of the reasons people do not see a health care provider are they can’t find one, they can’t afford it, or they don’t have insurance coverage. The most recent data suggests that as many as 16 percent of County residents do not have health insurance. (Good Guide, 2011) According to Healthy People 2020, the national average is slightly higher at 16.8 percent. The objective is an ambitious one with 100 percent of individuals covered by private insurance or Medicaid/Medicare by 2020. (Healthy People 2020, 2015) According to Washington State’s Department of Public Health, there are approximately 543 providers in Pierce County including doctors, ARNPs, CNMs, and PAs. A little more than half of them report that they are accepting new Medicaid and Medicare patients. (Washington State Department of Public Health, 2011) Interestingly, Healthy People 2020 has yet to define specific goals for increasing the number of practicing providers in all areas. (Healthy People 2020, 2015) Primary Prevention Topic When John Snow, the â€Å"father of epidemiology,† was investigating cholera outbreaks in mid-nineteenth century London, the chief cause of unnecessary death was communicable disease. Today, chronic disease that damages the heart, pancreas, and lungs are more likely to kill than bacteria. A large contributor to hypertension, diabetes, and heart failure is obesity. In a society obsessed with weight loss and thinness, obesity rates in adults and even children are growing. Just as John Snow found the source of the disease that was claiming lives in his community, we must also find the source but it is unlikely to be in a solitary water pump in the middle of the city. Preventing obesity appears to be a life-long task best started at birth. The data demonstrate that increasing breastfeeding rates is a powerful tool in decreasing childhood obesity. Breastfeeding rates for older, educated and more affluent women are already at Healthy People 2020 targets but women who are young, have low levels of education and who are poor are more likely to never breastfeed and are extremely unlikely to continue to do so for six months. (Grummer-Strawn, Scanlon, Darling, Conrey, 2004) An organization in the community that helps low-income women establish and maintain breastfeeding is the Women, Infants, and Children Program. A team of peer counselors who have themselves struggled with issues common to low-income breastfeeding women including pumping in the workplace help new moms navigate a difficult terrain and provide their children with the best start in life. Area hospital-based birth centers are working toward or have already achieved certification as a Baby Friendly Hospital. This designation indicates that the facility employs evidence-based practice that lead to dramatic increases in breastfeeding rates. (DiGirolamo, Grummer-Strawn, Fein, 2008) Given that the problem of obesity is large in Pierce County, the rewards for reducing it great, and the interventions that are most likely to help are known and inexpensive, I am focusing my primary prevention topic on promoting breastfeeding as a means to reduce obesity in Pierce County. Bibliography AHRQ. (2009). Breastfeeding, Maternal Infant Health Outcomes. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: City-Data. (2014). PIerce County, WA. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from DiGirolamo, A., Grummer-Strawn, L., Fein, S. (2008). Effect of Maternity-Care Practices on Breastfeeding. Pediatrics , S43-S49. Family Renewal Shelter. (2014). About the family renewal shelter. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from Family Renewal Shelter: Good Guide. (2011). Good Guide. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from Score Card The Pollution Information Site: Grummer-Strawn, L., Scanlon, K., Darling, N., Conrey, E. (2004). Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Breastfeeding . Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy People 2020. (2015). Access to Health Services. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from Healthy Healthy People 2020. (2015). Maternal, Infant, and Child Health. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from Healthy Healthy People 2020. (2015). Mental Health and Mental Disorders. Retrieved January 2015, 2015, from Healthy People 2020. (2015). Nutrition and Weight Status. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from Healthy People 2020: League of Women Voters Pierce County. (2013, December 11). Introduction to services for the seriously mentally ill in Pierce County . Retrieved January 18, 2015, from National Alliance for the Mentally Ill Pierce County: NAMI Pierce County. (2015). Welcome to the NAMI of Pierce County Web Site. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from NAMI Pierce County: Patamia, K. (2015, January 16). Windshield Survey of Pierce County. (K. Patamia, Interviewer) Pierce County Department of Emergency Management. (2010). Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. Retrieved January 17, 2015, from Pierce County Emergency Management: PPGNW. (2015). Who We Are. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest: Simpson. (2014). Environment. Retrieved January 17, 2015, from Simpson Company: Snob Hollow Designs. (2014). County Maps of Washington. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from County Maps of Washington: Tacoma Pierce County Health Department. (2015). Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from Health and Wellness: Tacoma Pierce County Health Department. (2014, August). Pierce County Community Health Improvement Plan. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from Pierce County Community Health Improvement Plan: Tacoma Rescue Mission. (2015). Rescue Mission. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from About Us: University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. (2014). County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from Washington Pierce County: US Census Bureau. (2014, December 4). State and County Quick Facts. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from United States Census Bureau: Washington State Department of Public Health. (2011, July). Primary Care Provider Survey: Pierce County. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from Office of Community Health Systems: YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties. (2014). About Us. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from YMCA of Pierce and Kitsap Counties:

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Significance of Repetition in Our Town Essay -- Our Town Essays

Significance of Repetition in Our Town  Ã‚      Wilder was born in Madison, Wisconsin in 1897 to Amos Parker Wilder and Isabella Wilder.   In 1906, Amos Wilder was appointed American Consul General, and his family moved with him to Hong Kong.   Thornton Wilder only lived in Hong Kong for 6 months, moved back to the United States with his mother, and then in 1911 rejoined his father in Shanghai for a year.   Wilder attended Oberlin College for two years, moved with his family to New Haven, Connecticut, and entered Yale University.   He wrote his first full-length play in 1920, which appeared in the Yale Literary Magazine.   After receiving his B.A. at Yale, he traveled and taught French.   In 1926, he received his M.A. in French Literature from Princeton.   Thornton Wilder effectively illustrates the importance of life’s repetition in Our Town through the cycle of life, George and Emily’s love, and the playing of â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds.†    Wilder’s show of the cycle of life in Our Town exemplifies the significance of life’s repetition.   In Act I, the beginning of life’s cycle is shown when Dr. Gibbs returns home from delivering twins.   In the act of   â€Å"Love and Marriage,† which follows three years later, the Stage Manager describes children growing up and learning to talk, and people who used to be athletic are finding that they cannot do what they used to do.   He goes on by saying that most young people found that they were ready to get married, and start their families.   So was true with George Gibbs and Emily Webb.   They moved on from being children and were now learning how to be adults.   In Act III, which is placed nine years afte... ...ral sing the song to show the gap between the dead and the living.   â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds† facilitates the understanding of the play and life.    Thornton Wilder effectively demonstrates the importance of life’s repetition in Our Town through the cycle of life, George and Emily’s love, and the playing of â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds.†Ã‚   The cycle of life is shown repeating from birth to life to death and back to birth again.   George and Emily’s love is repetitious and unending, even after the death of Emily, which demonstrates the importance of life.   As â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds† is recurrently heard throughout the play, it serves as a bridge through a void of time or place, which is important in understanding the play.   It is no wonder that Wilder achieved a Pulitzer Prize for his in-depth work of life.     

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Diverse Nature of Psychology Essay

Psychology has a diverse nature. Diversity describes the diverse nature of the field not diversity in human race. The following paper will define two examples of sub-disciplines of psychology and two theories connected to the sub-disciplines, how these two examples connect with contemporary society other than psychology, relate sub-disciplines to a theoretical perspective, and my psychological contribution to society. Diversity within the field of psychology is strength and a challenge. There are four primary areas which are clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational psychology. Sub-fields exist in these primary areas. Each sub-field has distinct unique theories to help encourage the growth in psychology. A psychologist that offers a broader view when considering theoretical approach in areas, the more understanding they offer their patients or clients. The simple truth is along with diversity comes help for everyone and every problem. According to (Park, N. , & Peterson, C. , 2009) â€Å"one of psychology’s strengths has been its willingness to embrace different purposes, perspectives, and approaches, and this recommendation is in the spirit of the field’s history†. Two sub-disciplines of focus are personality psychology and counseling psychology. Personality psychology is the study of individual’s personalities and what makes people who they are. â€Å"Within personality psychology, some propose that aspects of behavior and cognition can be explained with reference to personality traits. However, certain conceptual and logical issues cast doubt upon the adequacy of traits as coherent explanatory constructs† (Boag, 2011, pg. 223). Two personality theories are five factory theory and trait theory. According to the trait theory, personality is a production of numerous traits combined. Traits are personality characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior. â€Å"McCrae and Costa (1995) define traits as ‘‘dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and action’’ and which ‘‘transcend situational constraints’’† (Bog, 2011, pg. 230). Personality traits can simply be situation, which means that depending on what situation the individual is in can influence their personality. The five factor theory is based on five basic divisions of personality traits which are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. McCrae especially favored this theory simply because it was universal. This theory could fit many individuals regardless of culture or up-bringing. The five factory theory is not only universal, but also has biological origins. The fact that personality psychology can alter depending on situational occurrences is important to remember. Counseling psychology is the sub-discipline where not all individuals go on to become clinical psychology but only counseling psychologists. Counseling psychology focuses on the welling being of individuals by counseling them to reach their full potential as human beings. Counseling psychology also differs from clinical psychology because counseling psychology works towards prevention of symptoms instead of only treatment. â€Å"As a specialty within professional psychology, counseling psychology has a long history of exploring its identity and core values as represented with terms such as scientist–practitioner, vocational/work/career, normal development, diversity, relationships, prevention, strength-based, holism, social justice, and collaborative multidisciplinary practice, and the diversity statement† (Nicholas & Stern, 2011, pg. 332). Two theories connected to clinical psychology are psychoanalytical theory by Sigmund Freud and psychosocial theory by Erik Erickson. Psychoanalytical theory has three main parts which are the id, the ego, and the super ego. â€Å"Psychoanalysis profoundly transformed many traditional perspectives, uncovered the unsuspected initial diversity and wealth of potentialities in human nature, and thereby indeed held out the promise of an infinitely freer and richer development and humanity—provided it could chart the evolution from the relatively unformed state of the infant to the mature adult condition† (Freud and Development, 1985, pg. ). According the Freud the id simply drives the individual’s basic instincts. The ego seeks out to please the desires of the id. The super ego seeks out perfection and is sometimes the mediator between the id and the ego. Psychosocial theory was formed by Erik Erickson and displays the developmental routine of an individual by highlighting seven basic stages. This theory focuses on early development and the influence later on in the individual’s life. Social environment plays a role in an individual’s growth, thoughts, and behaviors. Psychosocial well-being is an important area of attention in early childhood care and education because when psychosocial problems appear, they can often persist past childhood. Based on their working experience with many different children, teachers of young children are aware that they make important contributions to the healthy social and emotional development† (Berkhoult, Dolk, & Goorhuis-Brouwer, 2010, pg. 103). Personality psychology and counseling psychology are tremendous help to social and work life. Personality psychology can help an individual understand the influences on their personality from their up-bringing and social lives. Individuals can offer insight to fellow co workers at their jobs. Understanding personality can help in work environments by encouraging close and trustworthy relationships between employees. Since personality traits are situational, work and social environments will have influences over these traits. Freud’s psychoanalytical theory can help an individual understand their wants and desires in their social and work lives. Psychosocial theory can encourage healing and prevent symptoms from continuing to affect individuals in a negative manner. Psychosocial also explains the individual’s history and what experiences have made them behave in certain ways. The humanistic perspective focuses on individuals meeting their full potential as human beings. This perspective highlights the best image of the person and focuses on the good of a person. â€Å"Over the last few years, counselor training has focused more on formal diagnosis, but this increased focus has been questioned. In the end, the question seems less about whether formal diagnosis will be taught and more about how it will be taught. The author argues that diagnosis should be taught from a social constructionist rather than an objectivist perspective because of the former perspective’s humanistic focus† (McLaughlin, 2006, pg. 165). The humanistic perspective can help in personality psychology and the concepts by offering insight to seeking out the good in an individual’s personality and traits. Personality psychology also gives some insight to the image of an individual simply because personality makes an individual who they are. The humanistic perspective also influences counseling psychology by focusing on the ndividual, the good and the bad. Counseling psychology does not only focus on helping symptoms but also preventing symptoms. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory can connect with humanistic perspective by understanding the id, the ego, and the super ego as defining the individual. The ego is the basic make up of the individual and will influence who the individual becomes. Erik Erickson’s psychosocial theory connects to the humanistic perspective by realizing who the individual is in their social lives. Understanding who an individual is in their personal lives can help focus on the good of the person. My personal psychological contribution comes through my goal to obtain my Masters in Psychology and help individuals addicted to drugs. I form goals and make road maps to accomplish these specific goals. My psychology classes have helped my current relationships in my personal life. I am recently engaged to a man who has three young children experiencing a horrific custody battle between their parents. I am able to offer some comfort and understanding to my fiance on how to handle his children at times. I by no means intrude or impose my ideas on him, but simply offer ignore or take advice. The field of psychology is continuously changing along with the human race. Diversity within the field is an important factor in helping mental health of the human race. There are sub-disciplines and theories to help each and every individual. Personality psychology and counseling psychology link closely together to offer a deep understand of why an individual is who they are. Freud and Erickson formulated beautiful theories that see, understand, and encourage the individuals through their pasts and on to their futures in a positive manner.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Poverty A Economic Disparity Between The Rich And Poor

An impoverished nation forms when there is great economic disparity between the rich and the poor. Adam Smith reflects on the income gap in his quote: â€Å"No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable.† Due to Saudi Arabia’s vast oil wealth, there is a large amount of the population who live well and fruitful, but more than 20 percent of the population lives in crippling poverty (Baker, 2013). Poverty is usually defined in either absolute or relative terms. Absolute poverty refers to the standard of living, which is reflected in satisfying the needs for basic survival (Rahim, Abidin, Ping, Alias, and, Muhammad, 2014). Relative poverty is reflected in the income gap between the rich and the poor (Rahim, et al., 2014). The study of poverty is often linked to globalization, and the effect of globalization on the world’s poor is highly debated (Rahim, et al., 2014). This paper will discuss the ov erall effects of the income gap, both positive and negative views of globalization on poverty, and an analysis of Adam’s Smith quote in relation to the income differences between the rich and the poor. The gap between the wealthy and the poor citizens of a country has an influence on the health, wellness, and overall economic growth of a nation. Saudi Arabia Economy Saudi Arabia has developed into a wealthy nation over the last 30 years due to the export of oil to other countries around the world (Sullivan, 2013). TheShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Walzer, Pogge, And Sachs Approach On Global Economic And Social Justice Essay1317 Words   |  6 Pagesanalysis of Walzer, Pogge, and Sachs approach on global economic and social justice In our modern age, the introduction of a global economy has led to a varying degree of achievements ranging from technological advances, higher life expectancies, and even the introduction of new world powers. 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